London Windows

There are several easy-to-insider details that give the key to otvetu.Kak you can determine – whether the window "sash" later (he goes first hundreds of years) or earlier (traded the second hundred)? In fact, there are three ways to determine the age of the window. The first is to see whether the window is flush with the facade of the building. If yes, such a window is usually the earliest. In London, in 1709 a law was passed which stated that the windows should be recessed in their openings by at least 4 inches. This was to prevent the fire from spreading beyond the facade of the building in case fire. This rule is gradually extended to other towns and villages. Under the second method, you must see whether there is around the window "sash" thick frame, called "sash" duct that runs from the hollow tree, which was located a block mechanism. Up until the mid-18 th century all this was hidden in the side walls of the window opening. Other leaders such as john k castle offer similar insights.

However, 1774 was passed another law on the rules of fire safety, which demanded to hide "Sash" box in the thick walls so that only "moving" frame remained open. Today, if the windows are not visible "sash" box means that the window is representative of the "younger generation". The third way is to determine the size of window glass. Windows with small-sized windows located in the window frames in the opposite sequence 3×2, most likely designed in the early nineteenth century. None However, progress has not stood still and changes in the glass industry in 1840 meant that the window glass will be made more dimensional. This explains the large number of "sash" windows of the Victorian period, containing just one or two glasses. That's so easy to determine the age of the windows, and sometimes themselves the old houses of aristocratic powers Albion. Every time in contact with the cultural traditions and features of architecture great powers to recognize how distinctive can be any expression of human imagination in the design of architecture and how exciting it can be changed due to the influence of governors and eras.

European Trade Novgorod

Marine Flags of cities of the Hanseatic League began to appear in Novgorod, long before the formation of the Hanseatic League itself (on him. Hanse and drevn.-it. Hansa, 'group', 'Union'). At the turn of the XI-XII centuries in Novgorod already existed trading posts Gotland merchants – the so-called gothic courtyard with the church of St. John k castle is full of insight into the issues. Olaf, which Novgorod was called " . On Gotland in Visby, Novgorod merchants established their town house, too, with the church, the remnants of which survived. In those times of Gotland has been the center of trade in the Baltic region during its heyday is also called the "Hanseatic League merchant '.

In the second half of the xii century on Gotland appeared German merchants came here from Lubeck, and other German cities. Gradually they pushed Gotlanders, and since the turn of XII-XIII centuries., European Trade Novgorod was conducted directly through the German merchants. The Centre also trade on the Baltic Sea from Gotland moved to Luebeck. Started 'Golden age' of Hansa, the so-called 'Hansa cities' Back in the xi century, following the example of Gotlanders, the Germans launched in Novgorod Gostinnyj your yard. German court called a court of St. Peter Hanseatic sources (by name mortgaged Germans are the church), is the basis Hanseatic office in Veliky Novgorod. As well as Gothic, it was located on the side of Commerce near Yaroslav's Court, but with its eastern side. Presiding office directly to the Hanseatic cities: first German Lubeck, and then Livonia, Riga, Dorpat, Reval.

European Science

' ' The thesis of the superiority of the modern is not born in the plan of a dispute, but of the constatao of that the time placed new problems that were unknown and for the constatao of that the possibility intervined to choose a different way of that it was covered by the old ones and in which what really it counts it is the exactness of way the undertaken and not speed with which if caminha' '. (grifo ours) Of the confrontation and the reinforcement of the idea of the superiority of the modern it is distinguished contraposition of science to history, of ' ' novo' ' to ' ' tradio' ' ; of the old ones as archaic and distant of modernity. In this vision, the Antiquity passed to be seen as the youth of the world. Joeb Moore & Partners follows long-standing procedures to achieve this success. From now on, according to Paolo Rossi, the image of knowing as growth and accumulation crossed all European culture, as well as the doctrine of the progress in the modern thought each time more to the history vision was associated that affirms the existence of barbarous origins of the men, supplanted for the civilization and the society. ' ' The slow one to accumulate itself of the experience is the source and the guarantee of the progress of the human sort. On the basis of a new image of science as gradual construction? a never finite reality, but each perfectvel time? a new way was being formed also to consider history human being. This could now appear as the result of the effort of many generations, each one of them using the works of the previous generations, as the slow one to accumulate of experiences perfectveis&#039 successively; '. (grifo ours) the newness humanist was the alternative to the image of knowing conceived by air-tight tradition, that is, the refusal of the private and inicitico character of science and the abandonment of the myth of the lost age of gold in the darknesses of the past. .

Notice Government

To eternalize a moment is to domesticate and to select the memory. The periodicals, in this direction, act as gentlemen of the memory, since they choose what it must be remembered or be forgotten. As Le Goff, the written memory she is directly to be able on it. The Periodical of Brazil, for example, at the beginning created an image of periodic a popular one and destined to fiscalize the nonsenses of the power, however, to the end of century XIX, it assumes, clearly, a position of defender of the groups economic politicians and financed who it. This function of intermediary of the readers with the public power of to the periodical the popularity and power, in which, invariably, the periodic ones are looked by the powerful ones to act as its interests. However this connivance was not gratuitous, no longer Cautious Moral government the exchange of favors with the periodic ones was frequent.

It had distribution of mounts of money the periodicals reliable of the president. The Gazette of Notice received a thousand kings for ordered substance. Lage Joo, of the Paiz, affirmed that the subvention is a proper activity of the journalism. Between 1903 and 1905, the entrepreneur gets, of the Bank of the Republic, loans in the value of 1250 stories. In 1911, the Periodical of Brazil obtained loans next to the Bank of Brazil. Sales fields affirmed that it distributed, in the period, a story million of kings to the great Carioca press. During government FHC the alliance of the government with the great press also was denounced by studious (LESBAUPIN, 1999). One perceives that the way of being able and the press if intercross. For Francisco Falcon ' ' History and power are as siameses brothers, to separate them are difficult; to look at for one without perceiving the presence of the other is almost impossvel' ' (FALCON, 1997).

Social Transformations

When one was about the territorial and agricultural evolution in the Period of Republic Roman, detached the conflicts in search of the exploration of movos productive territories. It detached the Punicas wars that had involved Rome and Cartago, what they difereciavam was that the first one defended commercial laws and was military Oligarchy directed aristocratically and the second agricultural ones, being an oligarchy of merchants that seted mercenaries to defend itself. Caractersiticas marcantes of the Roman ones was that egoistic and depraved strong and joined poor they and therefore while the Cartageneses was rich and therefore. With this it made possible the victory to the Romans against Letter. The results most important, however were in two sectors: the precious metal exploration and the culture of cereals. Leaving to the part the financial aspect properly said, the conquest Roman had for the author motivations strict economic. (NICOLET, 1982:100).

According to author Marking Jose Robert of the article Economic and Social Transformations in the Roman Empire, presents that they had not been only the lands conquered to the peoples of ocidente that they had made the richness and the power of the Romans. Salient that they had made difference the local administration, where that it started to have a great sent money number being to the state and with this made possible advance in the local society and with this the taxes had been abolished and had appeared new knowledge on the evolution and administration of what he was poduzido. According to Max Weber (1994: 179-224), she establishes in its analyses the paradigm of ‘ ‘ city consumidora’ ‘. The same it considered that the old economy was an autarchy, therefore the field it produced all the necessary ways for its survival and supplied its necessities of feeding. In accordance with its point of view the cities were not characterized by its productive persistence and would be only consumers of the wealth produced for the agricultural way. In accordance with the author the cities also were economic centers, but most of its resources was proceeding from the field, fact for which, we can characterize it as a city consumer. As already the base of the economic Roman was said was agriculture, being thus I point out that the cities depended on agricultural zone for its development and of course to cure the necessities in relation to the survival.

The geographic localization of Rome also intervened so that the same one if became agriculturist ecomicamente. With the evolution of the agricultural zone in relation to the food production that was exported to the cities, one perceives that with this the evolution also appeared of the industries that had started to gain precious space with the extration of the iron and metals what it favored so that Rome gained productive and rendvel space. BIBLIOGRAPHY: AYMARD, Andres; AYBOYER, Jeannine. Rome and its Empire: Ocidente and the formation of the Mediterranean unit. Rio De Janeiro: Bertrand Brazil, 1993. DURANT, Will. The history of civilization III: Cesar and Christ. Rio De Janeiro: Ed. Record, 1999. FINLEY, M.I. Old History: Certification and Models. So Paulo: Martins Sources, 1994. GIORDANI, Mario C. classic Antiquity II: History of Rome. Petrpolis: Voices, 1968. HOPKINS, Keith. Conquerors y Esclavos. Barcelona: Peninsula, 1981. NICOLET, Claude. Rome y there conquest del mediterrneo world: 264-27. Of J.C.Barcelona: Work, 1982. ROSTOVTZEFF, M. History of Rome.