Juan Velasco Alvarado

This means that only the issuing undertaking and their guarantors will be the only ones obliged to payment. Not being the endorsers of the title value. therefore only proceed action would change more direct, not for return. L.T.V. Art. 218-222.

VIII. Exchange actions is required protest to exercise direct exchange rate action? For procedurally exercise direct exchange rate action and the banking certificate to have executive merit, protest or substitute any formality is not required. Therefore, to allow the holder to exercise such action would change will suffice only deadline and breach of the obligation. As we have already pointed out, only proceed action would change against the issuer financial banking certificate and their eventual guarantors, because subsequent endorsers of the title value does not constitute forced solidarity in return path. L.T.V.

Art. 22. IX. legislation to) the banking licence in foreign currency in the Peruvian legal system, foreign currency banking certificate (considered as the beginning of the dollarization in the banking system) was regulated for the first time with the Decree Law N 22038; in the Government of Gral. Francisco Morales Bermudez, during the second stage of the military regime. It is interesting to discuss one of the recitals of the above-mentioned decree-law where is set as purpose promoting the saving of resident foreigners, making settled difference with the first phase of clear leaning of the regime in charge of the Gral. Juan Velasco Alvarado (including arriving to take them from their savings, prohibit the possession and procurement in currency foreign. making it a crime of possession – unauthorized possession of foreign currency), and is that, during this second stage, as well says castellares, sought regain the lost confidence of the foreign savers during the velasquista phase. Since then it has been received by the savers in foreign currency, mainly for being a value issued to the bearer, to order and in hard currency other than the national, and whose interests are exempted of the income tax, from its creation to date.

Average Currency

It is the currency in a country, where the forces and rules of market determine the prices of the products and services; III. It is the currency where they are refined and paid the main costs for elaboration of the goods or supply of the services; IV. It is the currency for which if they catch resources, in such a way proper how much of third, to finance its activities; v. the currency where the prescriptions are received. (DISGNOSTIC? , 2006, NOT PAGINADO) b) Monetary Item: they are those represented by money or rights to be received and obligations to be eliminated in money; (COMMITTEE? , 200-, P. 04) c) Not-Monetary Item: they are those represented by asset and liabilities that will not be received or eliminated in money; (Ibid. p. 04) d) Foreign Currency: it is the different currency of the functional currency of an entity; (Ibid.

p. 04) e) Currency of Presentation: it is the currency in which the countable demonstrations are presented; (Ibid. p. 04) f) Tax of Exchange: The exchange tax is the price, in national current currency, of a unit of foreign currency (ROSSETTI, 2000, P. 895).

g) Exchange variation: it is the resultant difference of the conversion of a value in a currency for a value in another currency, the different exchange taxes; (COMMITTEE? , 200-, P. 04) h) Current Dollar: the Real in the date of the closing is the value of the dollar in relation of Rocking; i) Historical dollar: it is the dollar quoted in relation to the Real at the beginning of the opening of the Rocking; j) Average dollar: it is the originary dollar of the addition of the dollar of the beginning with the one of the closing of the Rocking divided for 2 (two). 4,2 Patrimonial rocking translated and converted According to YOU WENT 21 with its interpretation in CPC 02, an entity also can present its demonstrations in any currency, that is, if the presentation currency to differ from the functional currency will use the method of conversion of the currency.

Foreign Currency

The certificates of deposit in foreign currency are titles that contain a promise of payment of credit content, and deben comply with the characteristics referred to in this article, such as be issued to bearer or to the order of certain person, by a company of the national financial system; they can be in the term determinado and not more than one year from its date of issue; and they can be traded freely, through its simple delivery or, in your case, by endorsement, either privately or through the centralized trading mechanisms. your transmission is performed with the purpose of the assignment of receivables, because as stated in article 222, these titles are not subject to joint and several liability of securities values, being the unique obligados to pay the issuing undertaking and their guarantors.

The minimum amount of the title is thousand dollars and is payable in the same currency, without its being necessary to expressly agree on the modalidad of the payment under article 50 of the law of securities values. the title can classify short-term on the grounds that the inc. (d) noted that the time limit for payment may not exceed of a year contado from the date of their issuance. You can negotiate freely; If it’s a title to order is transferred by endorsement and if it is bearer by delivery (inc. e), bargaining can perform privately or through the centralized trading mechanisms such as stock exchanges.

Assessment Tools

Every company must evaluate its corporate image to different audiences with whom you have ongoing relationship. The instrument used for this measurement is the audit of the image. You can not design or drafting a strategic plan prior year if we do not know how we are feeling our different target audiences. Many institutions use the news media monitoring service to measure its image, and feel that is enough, but this is only part of the media, the media profile. An audit of the image must be approached in an integrated manner so that it serves to make an assessment of all aspects that make up the image, which are equally important, such as the value of its brands, customer service, reputation, financial, opinion and that employees are projected to the outside, just to name a few variables. It is advisable to hire a market research firm to audit image because they have the structure, staffing and appropriate measuring instruments. It is important to consult or ask for references from previous work that these specialist firms have been made for other institutions and assess its expertise in these areas.

For an image audit is complete four important aspects to be considered and, for me cover almost all areas of interest: The financial picture (financial reputation and capital structure) The trade dress (product value, customer service and the value of brands) The image internal (employees and internal climate) public image (image in the media and public opinion) Great especially if a company has just gone through a crisis the media, the audit image measures the impact or damage that may have suffered corporate image and affects the value of brands, the state of employee morale, confidence of creditors and suppliers. The indicators obtained can serve as a reference to launch a campaign to reposition image if necessary. A image audit is not a study that followed efectuamuy, without this meaning that debemosdescuidarla image of the institution. The audit, to me, is a starting point, thereafter, to create mechanisms for monitoring and ongoing monitoring. The audit image shows "where we are" and, on that basis, we can decide "where we want to" go in communication. You can read more about these topics visit

Social Transformations

When one was about the territorial and agricultural evolution in the Period of Republic Roman, detached the conflicts in search of the exploration of movos productive territories. It detached the Punicas wars that had involved Rome and Cartago, what they difereciavam was that the first one defended commercial laws and was military Oligarchy directed aristocratically and the second agricultural ones, being an oligarchy of merchants that seted mercenaries to defend itself. Caractersiticas marcantes of the Roman ones was that egoistic and depraved strong and joined poor they and therefore while the Cartageneses was rich and therefore. With this it made possible the victory to the Romans against Letter. The results most important, however were in two sectors: the precious metal exploration and the culture of cereals. Leaving to the part the financial aspect properly said, the conquest Roman had for the author motivations strict economic. (NICOLET, 1982:100).

According to author Marking Jose Robert of the article Economic and Social Transformations in the Roman Empire, presents that they had not been only the lands conquered to the peoples of ocidente that they had made the richness and the power of the Romans. Salient that they had made difference the local administration, where that it started to have a great sent money number being to the state and with this made possible advance in the local society and with this the taxes had been abolished and had appeared new knowledge on the evolution and administration of what he was poduzido. According to Max Weber (1994: 179-224), she establishes in its analyses the paradigm of ‘ ‘ city consumidora’ ‘. The same it considered that the old economy was an autarchy, therefore the field it produced all the necessary ways for its survival and supplied its necessities of feeding. In accordance with its point of view the cities were not characterized by its productive persistence and would be only consumers of the wealth produced for the agricultural way. In accordance with the author the cities also were economic centers, but most of its resources was proceeding from the field, fact for which, we can characterize it as a city consumer. As already the base of the economic Roman was said was agriculture, being thus I point out that the cities depended on agricultural zone for its development and of course to cure the necessities in relation to the survival.

The geographic localization of Rome also intervened so that the same one if became agriculturist ecomicamente. With the evolution of the agricultural zone in relation to the food production that was exported to the cities, one perceives that with this the evolution also appeared of the industries that had started to gain precious space with the extration of the iron and metals what it favored so that Rome gained productive and rendvel space. BIBLIOGRAPHY: AYMARD, Andres; AYBOYER, Jeannine. Rome and its Empire: Ocidente and the formation of the Mediterranean unit. Rio De Janeiro: Bertrand Brazil, 1993. DURANT, Will. The history of civilization III: Cesar and Christ. Rio De Janeiro: Ed. Record, 1999. FINLEY, M.I. Old History: Certification and Models. So Paulo: Martins Sources, 1994. GIORDANI, Mario C. classic Antiquity II: History of Rome. Petrpolis: Voices, 1968. HOPKINS, Keith. Conquerors y Esclavos. Barcelona: Peninsula, 1981. NICOLET, Claude. Rome y there conquest del mediterrneo world: 264-27. Of J.C.Barcelona: Work, 1982. ROSTOVTZEFF, M. History of Rome.